history.

AP HISTORY FINAL REVIEW

After Lexington and Concord:

Ethan allen and the Green Mountain Boys captured Fort Ticonderoga from Brits 

SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRES
-Philadelphia
-May of 1775
-created Continental Army
-George Washington made commander
– send olive branch petition to George III
     -asking for reconciliation. 
The impact of Common sense
Enlightenment
Battle of Trenton against Hessians
     -christmas night
JAHAHHHAA
Essex Junto –  a group of federalists who existed in Boston and loudly campaigned against the decline in public virtue 
     – Thomas Pickering ( a senator from Massachusetts saw Jefferson as a Parisian Revolutionary Monster. 
Aaron Burr lost his significance after the election of 1800
European wars Spill over to the US/
impressment – forcing deserted british sailors and American citizens into the British navy to fight
 Jefferson banned Brit warships from entering US ports 
  • did not stop the Brits
  • Embargo of 1807
    • American ships could not enter the seas until England and France stopped their harassment of American shipping 
    • horrible effect on the American economy 
    • effected everyone, not just merchants
  • many wanted war, but Jefferson resisted
  • Madison became prez in 1808
  • Non-Intercourse Act
    • opened trade with all countries except England and France
    • another 1810 act threatened to cut trade with any nation that interfered with American Ships, which England and France continued to do

WAR OF 1812

  • Brits refused to stop impressment and seizure of ships
  • US declared war in June of 1812
  • “War Hawks” led by Henry Clay were extremely supportive of war. 
    • young Republicans 
    • felt that the war would allow the US to gain more land in the West, leading to greater economic growth 
  • Tecumseh 
    • him and his brother felt it was their duty to Unite all of the Indian tribes
      • RED NATION
    • joined several tribes together, terrified americans
    • encouraged by Brits
    • Gen. Will Henry Harrison attacked his village in late 1811
    • killed him in Detroit 
  • Napoleon was defeated in 1814
  • Brits launched an offensive on washington DC
    • destroyed the city 
    • burned White HOUSE
    • and capital
  • TREATY OF GHENT
    • ended the war
    • did not do anything about impressment of neutral trading rights 
    • restored diplomatic relations
  • Battle of New Orleans
    • actually occurred after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent
    • Andrew Jackson destroyed a large British Force
  • Harford Convention
    • nine days before the Treaty of Ghent was signed
    • Federalists
      • proposed nullification 
      • succession 
    • later viewed as foolish and unpatriotic
  • 1816 to 1823
    • Era of Good Feelings
  • James Monroe president in 1817
  • American System -make America less economically dependent on Europe
  • Missouri Comp.
  • putting-out system – merchants would buy the raw materials recruit dozens or in some case hundreds of farm families to do some work then sell the unfinished goods to larger factories
  • Native American policies-
    • Justice Marshall 
      • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
      • Native American had no real standing in court
      • had a right to possess land
    • Jackson
      • Removal Act of 1830 –
        • removal of all tribes east of the Missippi
        • Trail of Tears
  • Reform Movements
    • temperance movement
    • Horace Mann – formal education for all children
    • abolitionist movement
    • William Loyd Garrison
      • The Liberator
    • American Colonization society
  • Jackson – Democratic Republican
  • 1828 Election 
    • mudslinging
    • Quincy Adams v.s Jacky
  • JACKSON
    • spoils system
    • “kitchen cabinet”
    • Jeffersonian Ideal as nation of yeoman farming
    • pet banks
    • used veto
    • liked slaves
  • nullification – states canceling out fed law
  • WEbster Hayne Debate
    • webster argued that with nullification, our country would be destroyed
    • Force ACT
  • Jackson destroyed national bank
    • panic of 1837
  • Whig Party
    • more gov
    • national bank
    • Will henry harrison

Bear Flag Republic – 
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – signed on Feb 1848
  • officially ended the Mexican American war
  • for $15 million, the United States acquired the the Texas territory 
  • increased the size of the country by 1/3

Wilmot Proviso –

  • no slavery in land acquired from Mexico
  • did not pass

Free-Soil Party –

  1. oppose slavery in the newly acquired western territories

Compromise of 1850 –

  •      allowed CAlifornia to enter as a Free state
  • residents of new mexico and utah decide (pop sovghng)
  • toughened slave act
Dark horse canidate – franklin pierce
Uncle tom’s Cabin – Harriet Beecher Stowe
Gadsden Purchase – 
additional trade routes
Know Nothing Party – 
     – developed in response to immigrants
     -anti – catholic
     – nativist
Kansas-Nebraska Act – 
     – allowed slavery
Prompted the Creation of the Republican Party
“Bleeding Kansas” – 
slave or free
Dred Scott – 
slave has no rights
Lincoln Douglas Debate- 
Freeport Doctrine – a territory could exclude slavery if the laws and regulations written made slavery impossible to enforce. 
John Brown’s Raid
  • wanted to incite a slave riot in Harpers Ferry  by 
  • seized federal arsenal

Presidental Election of 1860 –

Lincoln won 
  • South Carolina left
  • Confederate States of America

Aftermath of Succession –

  • Fort Sumter 
    • south carolina
      • demanded power over fort
      • Gov sent support
  • Crittenden Plan
    • fed gov guarantee slavery in slave areas
    • Repubs went against
  • First Battle of Bull Run –
    • July 21, 1861
    • union forces forced to go back to washington
  • Anaconda Plan 
    • choke off south
    • control miss. river
  • Second Battle of Bull run
    • won by confeds
  • Battle of Shiloh 
    • bloodiest battle 
  • Ironclad ship
    • merrimack
    • monitor
  • conscription –
    • system to draft or get soldiers
  • “greenbacks” 
    • wartime union money not backed by gold
  • Copperheads
    • democrats who opposed the war
    • felt that freed slaves would take away jobs
  • Writ of Habeas Corpus
    • no free speech
  • Emancipation Proclamation
  • Battle of Fredericksburg 
    • major union loses
  • Battle of Chancellorsville
  • Battle at Gettysberg
    • bloodiest battle 
    • destroyed lees army
    • Wave of winnings for Union army continued :

                         [ vicksburg

                         [ total control of the mississippi
                         [ grant made commander
  • Sherman dominated the south
    • total war
  • appomattox

     RECONSTRUCTION

     
  • Ten Percent Plan
    • 10% of registered voters in a state had to approve of a plan
  • Radical Repubs
    • Tahddeus Stevens
      • totally reorganize southern states
  • Black Codes
    • regulations against
  • Wade Davis Act
    • Congress would only authorize a state government in a former Confederate when the majority of voters took an oath
    • lincoln killed the bill with a pocket veto
  • Andrew Johnson 
    • lenient reconstruction plan 
  • Rad Repubs in south
    • advance the status of freedman
      • tenant farming
      • 40 acres and a mule 
      • freedmans bureau
    • fought for black suffrage
  • Civil Rights Act of 1866 –
    • freedmen all benefits of federal citizenship
      • Thirteenth Amendment 
        • outlawed slavery and other servitude
  • Fourteenth Amendment 
    • citizenship would be the same in all states 
    • freedmen have all rights
    • former confeds no pub office
  • Reconstruction act
    • 1867
    • divided south into 5 military districts
      • military general in charge
      • made sure blacks had rights
  • Tenure of office act
    • prez could not dismiss any cabinet member without approval of congress
    • used it to impeach johnson
      • was not removed due to Edmund Ross
  • Republican Grant elected
    • passed Fifteenth Amend.
      • no American could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude
      • elections of 1870 regulated by military
  • carpetbaggers
    • northerners who moved to the south to take advantage
  • scalawags 
    • southern term for southern republicans
  • KKK
  • Compromise of 1877
    • Sam Tilden
    • ends reconstruction
    • removes troops
    • blacks status goes down
  • Homestead act
    • 160 acres to any settles who
      • american citizen 
      • 21 
      • committed
      • $10 registration
  •  Morrill Land-Grant Act
  • RAILROADS bought land
  • bonanza farms
    • large corporate farming
  • Exodusters
    • southern blacks who went west
  • lots of mining and lumbering in the west
    • anaconda copper co.
    • timber and stone act
      • gave land away
  • ranching in the west
    • cattle drives
    • critical blow
      • two very harsh winters of 1885 to 1887
  • Indians
    • General Custer
      • Battle of Little Big Horn
        • last major Native Ameri. victory over Americans
    • Massacre at Wounded Knee
    • Dawes Act
      • 1887
      • civilizing 
      • destroy tribal identities
      • give them plots of land
  • Rise of Farmers
    • Grange movement
    • Greenback party
    • Farmers Alliances
  • led to
    • Interstate Commerce ACt
      • fed gov could regulate interstate railway rates
    • Sherman Antitrust act
      • control power of trusts and monopolies
    • Populist party
      • money circulation
      • income tax
      • William Jennings Bryan 
        • not crucify mankind on cross of gold
  • Turner Thesis
    • nature of america comes from western expansion
  • Taylorism 
    • empahsized speed and efficiency in the workplace 
    • ford 
  • Interstate Commerce Act
    • stopped RR
  • Trusts
    • Carneige
    • Rockefeller
    • horizontal integration
    • holding company
      • stock
    • vertical integration
      • control marketing and distribution
  • Social Darwinism
    • God had granted power and wealth to those who deserved it
  • Gospel of Wealth
    • act as guardians and help the pooor
  • LABOR UNIONS
    • Knights of Labor
      • took off like crazy
      • pie in the sky
      • open to all
      • HAYMARKET SQUARE
        • anarchists
        • hurt the labor movement
        • lead to major decline
    • American Federation of Labor
      • Samuel Gompers (i like his name)
      • bread and butter
      • fought for simple rights
      • only white men skilled workers
    • Eugene Debs
    • Iww
      • clse to k of L
    • new immigrants
Occupation: nurse, birth control advocate – Margaret Sanger
 
Stono Rebellion
     -one of the most succesful slave rebellions at the time
Office Price Administration
-WWII
Office of War Mobilization
public pacifier 
civil rights act of 1960
     – us attorney general 
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