LIT

  • meander – to walk aimlessly
  • insolent – arrogant rude presumptious
  • prattle – chatter babble talk with no direction
  • herculean – collosal, extremely large and difficult
  • akimbo – how some one is standing
  • turgid – extremely intricate
  • abhor – hate, loath
  • dichotomy –  disaster
  • ubiquitous – known to all and widespread
  • conundrum – puzzle
  • laud – praise
  • puffery – exaggeration
  • meritorious – able to be praised, prizeworthy
  • sycophant – henchman, scoundral crony
  • abstemious – obstaining from food and drink
  • plaintive –  sad and mournful
  • sanction – honor
  • cogitate – ponder
  • incisive – sharp
  • supercilious – very arrogant
  • wiseacre – someone who is pretending to know something
  • counterfeit – fake
  • delve – to dive into
  • juxtapose –place or deal with close together for contrasting effect
  • syllogism – logical statement
  • surreptitiously – kept secret, esp. because it would not be approved of
  • grovel – beg or plee annoyingly
  • paradigm – model to follow
  • pulchritude – physical beauty
  • portent – manefestation
  • anomaly – something that derives from the normal
  • rescind – take back
  • callous – careless rough, harsh insensitive
  • ardor – passion
  • zombify – to turn into a zombie
  • moiety – half of something
  • prodigious – great, huge emmense
  • sesquipedalian – long
  • feral – wild
  • humuhumunukunukuapuaa – fish
  • insidious  – treacherous, seductive
  • culpable – guilty with a negative connatation
  • epigram – turse
  • levity – frivlity, fun. lighthearted,
  • capacious –
  • vicarious – substitute, replacement
  • esoteric
  • jocund – gay
  • 4.
  • • ap lit final review
  • ⁃ by [andrew rauh]
  • ⁃ First era to know
  • ⁃ 1. The Early Renaissance and Elizabethan Sonneteers.
  • ⁃ Authors:
  • ⁃ 1. Sir Thomas Wyatt
  • ⁃ -during Henry VIII
  • ⁃ -went to St. John’s College at Cambridge
  • ⁃ -deeply impressed with Italian sonnets
  • ⁃ -brought the sonnet back to england
  • ⁃ -stormy relationship with the king
  • ⁃ -writing skills spared him his life.
  • ⁃ Stories
  • ⁃ Whoso list to hunt
  • ⁃ sd
  • ⁃ 2. Edmund Spenser
  • ⁃ one of Englands greatest poets
  • ⁃ first major writer since chauncer
  • ⁃ son of a cloth merchant
  • ⁃ cambridge university
  • ⁃ famous for pastorals
  • ⁃ “the faerie queene”
  • ⁃ depects heroism in an enchanted world of dragons, monsters, etc.
  • ⁃ friends with sir walter raleigh
  • ⁃ died in 1599
  • ⁃ jh
  • ⁃ 3.Sir Philip Sidney
  • ⁃ one of Queen Elizabeths favorites
  • ⁃ very talented in many areas
  • ⁃ most famous for astrophel and stella
  • ⁃ sonnet sequence
  • ⁃ examines love from many different prospectives.
  • ⁃ only a fewof his works were published during his lifetime
  • ⁃ died in batle with a musket wound
  • ⁃ always was a noble man
  • ⁃ 4. Christopher Marlowe
  • ⁃ contemporary of shakespeare
  • ⁃ born two months before
  • ⁃ led the way for shakespearefffdfd
  • ⁃ son of a shoemaker
  • ⁃ went to cambridge
  • ⁃ worked secretly for the queen
  • ⁃ accused of writing athetistic papers
  • ⁃ died soon after he was stabbed in the eye
  • ⁃ admired by shakespeare
  • ⁃ 5. Sir Walter Raleigh
  • ⁃ soldier, explorer, colonizer, courtier, poet, scientist, and historian
  • ⁃ example of a reniassance man
  • ⁃ father of the british empire and modern historical writin
  • ⁃ executed after false convicted of treason
  • 17th Century Metaphysical Poets
  • -less formal styles
  • -counter sonnet
  • -irregular
  • -use of argument
  • -use of conceits [elaborate extended metaphors]
  • -use of non high style language and other styles like melodious words, elegant phrasing, plain style
  • -unconventional forms [little regularity, not predictable, not elevated language][]
  • John Donne
  • – “jack” donne wild and crazy youth
  • -created intimate portrayals of human relationships and of the physical world.
  • -born into a rich roman catholic family
  • -studied at oxford and later cambridge
  • -never received degrees since he was catholic
  • -later joined church of england
  • -entered the anglican ministry
  • -wife died in childbirth
  • -died 1631
  • -Holy sonnet 10
  • – -holy sonnet 14
  • =    -valecdiction
  • – -the flea
  • George Herbert
  • -Easter Wings
  • -The Alter
  • -Heaven
  • Andrew Marvell
  • -Cambridge
  • -born 1621
  • -worked as a tutor
  • -elected to parliament in 1659
  • -stayed there for the rest of his life.
  • -remained in parliament despite violent exchange of power back to king charles
  • -Marvell interceed allowing milton to write paradise lost
  • -died in 1678
  • -To his coy mistress
  • -carpe diem poem
  • if we had all the time we could imagine it woud not matter but since
  • * we don’t so time is valuable
  • * references historical events
  • * “vegetable love” – not agressive
  • * no “seeds” – mark
  • * mating – dave
  • * not lustful
  • * if all the time in the world it could be vegetable love
  • * praise each part of her for centuries’
  • * if then statements = syllogism
  • * praise her heart
  • * feel good about herself how much he loves him – david
  • * compassion – mark
  • * but we do not have that much time
  • * not much at all
  • * but not going to be beautiful after death
  • * preseved her virginity
  • * honorable
  • * who will win?
  • * worms if she remains
  • * quaint honor turns to dust.
  • * people dont embrace in the grave
  • * if we continue as we continue this is what will happen ^
  • * worms taking virginity
  • * metaphysical
  • * passionate
  • * iron gates of life –
  • * female genitalia
  • * wind up all passion into one event
  • * sex
  • * conclusion
  • * if we could control time
  • * we can however make the most out of what we have
  • Cavalier Poets
  • -conversational style
  • -elaborate conceit
  • -meditative tone
  • -classism
  • -regular poetic form
  • -carpe diem
  • -often aristocrats
  • -often followers of ben johnson (shakespeares friend)
  • -Sir John Suckling
  • -Robert Herrick
  • – Richard Lovelace
  • -main goal was to entertain not teach
  • Cavalier Poets –
  • Conversational Style
  • Elaborate Conceits
  • Meditative Tone
  • Classicism-
  • -references Greeks and romans
  • -bringing back old forms
  • -old models of poetry
  • -give them new life
  • -pascal poems
  • -imitate
  • -Regular Poetic Form
  • -similar to classicism
  • Herrick
  • -similar to other poem with virgiity
  • -asking to just use talent
  • -more politely stated
  • Ben Johnson
  • -pg 445
  • -carpe diem
  • -hyperbole
  • -dont need to drink just enjoy her kiss
  • -not only tasty, but divine
  • -use of classism
  • -ambrosia
  • -Jove’s nectar
  • -better than the drinks of the gods
  • ON MY FIRST SON
  • -son died at age 7
  • -sin was too mch hope of thee
  • -loved him so much
  • -it hurts him now
  • -his son is his best work of poetry
  • -iambic pentameter
  • -rhyming couplets
  • RICHARD LOVELACE
  • -constant lover
  • -surprised himself
  • -luck
  • -longest he has been in love is three days
  • -only because it was a particular person
  • -would have been 144 in three days
  • -if not her
  • BEN JOHNSON
  • -fiery tempered
  • -rough
  • -”sons of ben”
  • -born 1572
  • -mostly self educated
  • -first success was  a play
  • -contemporary of shakepspeareerrerere
  • -sentenced to death after killing a fellow actor in a duel
  • -saved by his ability to read latin
  • -outspoken even arrogant
  • -englands first poet laurate
  • -died in 1637
  • STORIES:
  • -On my first son
  • -Song:to cecilia
  • Herrick
  • -london
  • -Johnson was his mentor and fatherly figure
  • -was forced to become a vicar [assistant priest]
  • -country setting served as the focus of his poems
  • -eventually moved back to london
  • -noble numbers and hesperides
  • -explored serious philosophical questions of life and death in short, playful lyrics
  • STORIES:
  • -To the Virgin, to make much of time
  • THE PURITAN AGE:
  • -liberal stance in politics
  • -strict religious
  • -search for “purity”
  • -purifying religion from Catholism.
  • <<MILTON>>
  • -born in london in 1608
  • -serious nature and piety
  • -made him unpopular
  • -spent 6 years reading everything he could get his hands on
  • -after spent a few years traveling around italy to meet the artists
  • -believed that the power resided in the people, who delegated it to the king
  • -people had the right to overthrow a king
  • -loved poetry
  • -wrote epic poems
  • -went blind
  • -died in 1674
  • STORIES:
  • -Paradise Lost
  • -epic masterpiece about adam and eve’s fall from grace
  • –      <i>Paradise
  • Lost</i> by stating that his subject will be Adam and Eve&rsquo;s
  • disobedience and fall from grace. He invokes a heavenly muse and
  • asks for help in relating his ambitious story and God&rsquo;s plan for
  • humankind. The action begins with Satan and his fellow rebel angels
  • who are found chained to a lake of fire in Hell. They quickly free
  • themselves and fly to land, where they discover minerals and construct
  • Pandemonium, which will be their meeting place. Inside Pandemonium,
  • the rebel angels, who are now devils, debate whether they should
  • begin another war with God. Beezelbub suggests that they attempt
  • to corrupt God&rsquo;s beloved new creation, humankind. Satan agrees,
  • and volunteers to go himself. As he prepares to leave Hell, he is
  • met at the gates by his children, Sin and Death, who follow him
  • and build a bridge between Hell and Earth.</p>
  • <div class=”floatingad”><script language=”JavaScript”><!–
  • DisplayAds(“Middle,Middle2,Right!Middle”);
  • //–></script></div>
  • <p>In Heaven, God orders the angels together for a council
  • of their own. He tells them of Satan&rsquo;s intentions, and the Son volunteers himself
  • to make the sacrifice for humankind. Meanwhile, Satan travels through
  • Night and Chaos and finds Earth. He disguises himself as a cherub
  • to get past the Archangel Uriel, who stands guard at the sun. He
  • tells Uriel that he wishes to see and praise God&rsquo;s glorious creation,
  • and Uriel assents. Satan then lands on Earth and takes a moment
  • to reflect. Seeing the splendor of Paradise brings him pain rather
  • than pleasure. He reaffirms his decision to make evil his good, and
  • continue to commit crimes against God. Satan leaps over Paradise&rsquo;s
  • wall, takes the form of a cormorant (a large bird), and perches himself
  • atop the Tree of Life. Looking down at Satan from his post, Uriel
  • notices the volatile emotions reflected in the face of this so-called
  • cherub and warns the other angels that an impostor is in their midst.
  • The other angels agree to search the Garden for intruders.</p>
  • <p>Meanwhile, Adam and Eve tend the Garden, carefully obeying God&rsquo;s
  • supreme order not to eat from the Tree of Knowledge. After a long
  • day of work, they return to their bower and rest. There, Satan takes
  • the form of a toad and whispers into Eve&rsquo;s ear. Gabriel, the angel
  • set to guard Paradise, finds Satan there and orders him to leave.
  • Satan prepares to battle Gabriel, but God makes a sign appear in
  • the sky&mdash;the golden scales of justice&mdash;and Satan scurries away. Eve
  • awakes and tells Adam about a dream she had, in which an angel tempted
  • her to eat from the forbidden tree. Worried about his creation,
  • God sends Raphael down to Earth to teach Adam and Eve of the dangers
  • they face with Satan.</p>
  • <p>Raphael arrives on Earth and eats a meal with Adam and
  • Eve. Raphael relates the story of Satan&rsquo;s envy over the Son&rsquo;s appointment
  • as God&rsquo;s second-in-command. Satan gathered other angels together
  • who were also angry to hear this news, and together they plotted
  • a war against God. Abdiel decides not to join Satan&rsquo;s army and returns
  • to God. The angels then begin to fight, with Michael and Gabriel
  • serving as co-leaders for Heaven&rsquo;s army. The battle lasts two days,
  • when God sends the Son to end the war and deliver Satan and his
  • rebel angels to Hell. Raphael tells Adam about Satan&rsquo;s evil motives
  • to corrupt them, and warns Adam to watch out for Satan. Adam asks
  • Raphael to tell him the story of creation. Raphael tells Adam that
  • God sent the Son into Chaos to create the universe. He created the
  • earth and stars and other planets. Curious, Adam asks Raphael about
  • the movement of the stars and planets. Eve retires, allowing Raphael and Adam to speak alone. Raphael promptly warns Adam about his seemingly unquenchable search for knowledge. Raphael tells
  • Adam that he will learn all he needs to know, and that any other
  • knowledge is not meant for humans to comprehend. Adam tells Raphael
  • about his first memories, of waking up and wondering who he was,
  • what he was, and where he was. Adam says that God spoke to him and
  • told him many things, including his order not to eat from the Tree
  • of Knowledge. After the story, Adam confesses to Raphael his intense
  • physical attraction to Eve. Raphael reminds Adam that he must love
  • Eve more purely and spiritually. With this final bit of advice,
  • Raphael leaves Earth and returns to Heaven.</p>
  • <p>Eight days after his banishment, Satan returns to Paradise.
  • After closely studying the animals of Paradise, he chooses to take
  • the form of the serpent. Meanwhile, Eve suggests to Adam that they
  • work separately for awhile, so they can get more work done. Adam
  • is hesitant but then assents. Satan searches for Eve and is delighted
  • to find her alone. In the form of a serpent, he talks to Eve and
  • compliments her on her beauty and godliness. She is amazed to find
  • an animal that can speak. She asks how he learned to speak, and
  • he tells her that it was by eating from the Tree of Knowledge. He
  • tells Eve that God actually wants her and Adam to eat from the tree,
  • and that his order is merely a test of their courage. She is hesitant
  • at first but then reaches for a fruit from the Tree of Knowledge
  • and eats. She becomes distraught and searches for Adam. Adam has
  • been busy making a wreath of flowers for Eve. When Eve finds Adam,
  • he drops the wreath and is horrified to find that Eve has eaten
  • from the forbidden tree. Knowing that she has fallen, he decides
  • that he would rather be fallen with her than remain pure and lose
  • her. So he eats from the fruit as well. Adam looks at Eve in a new
  • way, and together they turn to lust.</p>
  • <p>God immediately knows of their disobedience. He tells
  • the angels in Heaven that Adam and Eve must be punished, but with
  • a display of both justice and mercy. He sends the Son to give out
  • the punishments. The Son first punishes the serpent whose body Satan
  • took, and condemns it never to walk upright again. Then the Son
  • tells Adam and Eve that they must now suffer pain and death. Eve
  • and all women must suffer the pain of childbirth and must submit
  • to their husbands, and Adam and all men must hunt and grow their
  • own food on a depleted Earth. Meanwhile, Satan returns to Hell where he
  • is greeted with cheers. He speaks to the devils in Pandemonium, and
  • everyone believes that he has beaten God. Sin and Death travel the
  • bridge they built on their way to Earth. Shortly thereafter, the devils
  • unwillingly transform into snakes and try to reach fruit from imaginary
  • trees that shrivel and turn to dust as they reach them.</p>
  • <div class=”floatingad”><script language=”JavaScript”><!–
  • DisplayAds(“Middle,Middle2,Right!Middle2”);
  • //–></script></div>
  • <p>God tells the angels to transform the Earth. After the
  • fall, humankind must suffer hot and cold seasons instead of the
  • consistent temperatures before the fall. On Earth, Adam and Eve
  • fear their approaching doom. They blame each other for their disobedience and
  • become increasingly angry at one another. In a fit of rage, Adam wonders
  • why God ever created Eve. Eve begs Adam not to abandon her. She
  • tells him that they can survive by loving each other. She accepts
  • the blame because she has disobeyed both God and Adam. She ponders
  • suicide. Adam, moved by her speech, forbids her from taking her
  • own life. He remembers their punishment and believes that they can
  • enact revenge on Satan by remaining obedient to God. Together they
  • pray to God and repent.</p>
  • <p>God hears their prayers, and sends Michael down to Earth. Michael
  • arrives on Earth, and tells them that they must leave Paradise.
  • But before they leave, Michael puts Eve to sleep and takes Adam
  • up onto the highest hill, where he shows him a vision of humankind&rsquo;s
  • future. Adam sees the sins of his children, and his children&rsquo;s children,
  • and his first vision of death. Horrified, he asks Michael if there
  • is any alternative to death. Generations to follow continue to sin
  • by lust, greed, envy, and pride. They kill each other selfishly
  • and live only for pleasure. Then Michael shows him the vision of
  • Enoch, who is saved by God as his warring peers attempt to kill
  • him. Adam also sees the story of Noah and his family, whose virtue
  • allows them to be chosen to survive the flood that kills all other humans.
  • Adam feels remorse for death and happiness for humankind&rsquo;s redemption.
  • Next is the vision of Nimrod and the Tower of Babel. This story
  • explains the perversion of pure language into the many languages
  • that are spoken on Earth today. Adam sees the triumph of Moses and
  • the Israelites, and then glimpses the Son&rsquo;s sacrifice to save humankind.
  • After this vision, it is time for Adam and Eve to leave Paradise.
  • Eve awakes and tells Adam that she had a very interesting and educating
  • dream. Led by Michael, Adam and Eve slowly and woefully leave Paradise
  • hand in hand into a new world.</p>’
  • AP Brit Lit
  • Review Guide: Final Exam
  • The Early Renaissance/Elizabethian Sonneteers (1530-1625)
  • Sir Thomas Wyatt, “Whoso List to Hunt”
  • Edmund Spenser, “Sonnet 75”
  • -made money by taking Irish people’s land
  • -pensive from queen
  • -poor roots
  • -Faerie Queen” published in 12 books, written in Spenserian Stanza
  • -8 Lines | Iambic pentameter; +1 | Iambic hexameter
  • -Sonnet 75: Conventions: topic = love, immortalizing, unattainable girl; seems like they are closer
  • Sir Philip Sidney, “Sonnet 31” and “Sonnet 39” from Astrophel and Stella
  • -poet, soldier, did things from different fields
  • -private tutors
  • -favorite
  • Sonnet 31 – Italian sonnet, apostrophe = talks to moon
  • Sonnet 39 – starts with apostrophe, by sleeping he dreams of stella, loves from afar, or rejects him
  • Christopher Marlowe, “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love”
  • -Marlow is morning star (wtf?); came before Shakespear
  • -humble beginnings
  • -worked undercover for queen, prevented assassination
  • -wrote blasphemous things, got in trouble
  • -stabbed in the eye
  • -Lover of Queen Elizabeth
  • -Passionate shepherd to his love
  • -6 quatrains, iambic tetrameter
  • Sir Walter Raleigh, “The Nymph’s Reply”
  • William Shakespeare, “Sonnet 130,” “Sonnet 29,” “Sonnet 18”
  • -152 Sonnets, 34 plays
  • Sonnet 130: describing lover’s physical qualities, unlike other sonnets, he likes her for personality, points out undesirable qualities, She treads instead of float, humble and down to earth
  • The 17th Century (1625-1660)
  • Metaphysical Poets background, p 428-29
  • -“beyond physical”
  • -Explore ideas
  • -religious issues
  • -spiritual and philosophical
  • John Donne (background p. 430)
  • -born into Catholic family; faced prejudice
  • -didn’t swear oath to Queen Elizabeth for Cambridge and Oxford (because of faith)
  • -spiritual person, faithful to God
  • -Belief of afterlife reflected in poetry
  • -greatest preacher in England, popular
  • -courtier for queen, secretary for Egerton (might be Eserton)
  • -Married Anne More, niece of Sir Thomas Egerton
  • -Young =wild, carefree life, known as “jack” Donne, all poetry about love –metaphical
  • -Older = “Doctor John Donne” – more about his faith
  • -His poems are metaphysical because: intellectually playfulness or wit, always an argument, paradox, irony, elaborate and unusual coneits, incongruity, iambic meter
  • “Song,” “Valediction Forbidding Mourning,” “Death Be Not Proud,” and “Meditation 17” p 432-40.
  • Song
  • -personal tribute to something
  • -actual poet saying to something
  • dimeter, trimeter, tetrameter
  • -he must leave; “pretend” death
  • -as dependable as the sun
  • -cannot control time; therefore must make most of it
  • -“when you’re sad, I’m sad”
  • The Flea
  • -asking to have sex w/ him
  • -not being serious
  • -“Maidenhead” = virginity
  • -Flea joins them together; a child can be potential
  • Valediction
  • -Valediction = saying goodbye; says good bye to this lover, doesn’t want to be sad
  • -wants goodbye to be natural like spinning of the earth
  • -Compass- fixed foot stays in place (she stayes)
  • -move in different ways
  • -upstanding when home w/ her – disloyalt?
  • -circle gets closer as they get farther – soul/heart
  • Death be Not Proud
  • -talking to death = apostrophe
  • -comparing to bully – tells not to be proud
  • -death is like sleeping, and sleep is not scary
  • -death is really quite weak
  • -experience what death is like through medicine/drugs/hypnosis; there is nothing to brag about, we can do it too
  • christian lense = our souls do not die
  • -paradox = “death, thou shalt die”
  • -loses battle/purpose/essence
  • -Italian rhyme scheme
  • -weakens death by each quatrain
  • Holy Sonnet 10
  • Holy Sonnet 14
  • Valediction
  • George Herbert
  • “Virtue,” “Easter Wings,” “Heaven,” and “The Altar,” on handouts
  • Andrew Marvell (background p 474) – cavalier or metaphysical
  • -poetry is metaphysical
  • -Charles I against puritans, absolute monarch
  • marvell was puritan
  • -Cromwell lead a revolution, Charles I executed, Charles II gains throne
  • -stopped academic career after father died
  • -wrote about love, known for satire on politics
  • -Marvell helped Milton escape execution
  • “To His Coy Mistress” p 476-77
  • -coy = modest or flirty, playful evasiveness
  • -short on time
  • -stanzas of rhyming couplets
  • -iambic tentrameter
  • -rubies symbol for virginity
  • -spend centuries on each body part; admiring heart/spirit
  • volta or shift
  • -time keeps moving quickly, going to die soon
  • -youth and beauty – morning dew
  • -sun = biblical reference – Joshua commands sun to stand still
  • The Cavalier Poets (Sons of Ben) Background, p 452-53
  • Ben Jonson (background p 445)
  • “On My First Son” and “Song: To Celia,” p 447-49
  • Robert Herrick (background p 455)
  • more talking than writing
  • “To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time,” p 457
  • -Constant lover- loves different people; always in love; constant dependable lover
  • -exaggeration: would have been with 144 women (dozen dozen) if not for her
  • The Puritan Age
  • John Milton
  • -Serious and pius puritan
  • -wrote sonnets
  • -paradise lost
  • -daughter wrote things down when he went blind
  • Paradise Lost
  • Milton wants to create/present the way he interprets God
  • -blank verse – unrhymed iambic pentameter
  • -writing through the Holy Spirit
  • -alludes to blindness
  • -why Adam and Eve fell = serpent
  • -tells what happened to satan
  • -wanted to be equal to God; above all others
  • -Syntax: DO, subject, v – Line 44
  • -fell for 9 days
  • satan’s got a crew; damned forever
  • -invocation of muse, epic conflict of good vs. evil, visit to hades, in medias res, epic boasts
  • -takes delight in making problems
  • greek stuff = neoclassicism
  • -compared to volcano – epic simile
  • -wants to be his own boss
  • -human characteristics: pride, greed, optimism, perseverance, ambition
  • -drawing connection between satan + humanity
  • The 18th Century and the Restoration (1660-1798)
  • John Dryden, “Song for St. Cecilia’s Day”
  • -Father of English criticism
  • -first critic/essayist
  • -trinity college in cambridge
  • -satirical essays on the king
  • A Song for St. Cecilia’s Day
  • -patron saint of music
  • -varies meter and stanza length
  • -music began when universe began – nature
  • Samuel Pepys, excerpt from “The Diary”
  • -Clerk in navy office
  • -1666 – Fire of London
  • -unemotional
  • -kept things safe, worried about his things
  • Daniel Defoe, Moll Flanders
  • Jonathan Swift, “A Modest Proposal”
  • -Irish, spoke up for them
  • -attacks both groups
  • -wrote political pamphlet while in Ireland
  • A Modest Proposal
  • -Seems detached, nonchalant
  • -makes it seem like a logical argument
  • -uses a persona or “mask”
  • Alexander Pope, excerpt from The Rape of the Lock
  • -chronically ill at young age; tuberculosis of the spine
  • -under five feet tall
  • -known as “wasp” of twickenham
  • -makes fun of vanity of society
  • The Rape of the Lock
  • -Took lock of hair without permission
  • -mock epic
  • Samuel Johnson, excerpt from A Dictionary of the English Language
  • The Romantic Age (1798-1832)
  • Gray, Blake, Burns = Preromantic, transitional
  • Thomas Gray, “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard”
  • elegaic, mournful, sad
  • -country churchyard
  • -hears cows and drone of beetles, sheep – relaxing sounds, native
  • -mourning loss of people who came before him
  • -these people miss out on every day life
  • -you don’t know value of their lives
  • -had possibility to become more
  • -structured rhyme scheme and quatrains; iambic pentameter, rhyme, elegy
  • -topics, common people + their lives
  • Robert Burns, “To a Mouse”
  • -official poet of Scotland
  • -“Auld lany syne” – everyone sings
  • To a Mouse
  • scottish dialect – first line
  • -writes for common people
  • -human beings, common
  • -mouse is a like, but better off; not concerned with future
  • William Blake, “The Lamb,” “The Tiger,” and “The Chimney Sweeper”
  • -Very spiritual; liked art; illumination
  • -spoke of having visions; brother died
  • -“songs of innocence” – intended for children, use pictures
  • -archaic language “Tyger,” “thee,” “though”
  • William Wordsworth, “Daffodils” and “Tintern Abbey”
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge, “Kubla Khan”
  • George Gordon, Lord Byron, excerpts from Don Juan and Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage
  • Percy Bysshe Shelley, “Ozymandias” and “Ode to the West Wind”
  • John Keats, “Ode to a Nightingale,” “Ode to a Grecian Urn,” and “To Autumn”
  • The Victorian Age (1833-1901)
  • Thomas Hardy, Tess of the d”Urbervilles or Jude the Obscure
  • Literary Terms
  • Sonnet (Italian/English) –
  • -“little song” came from Italy during Italian Renaissance
  • – Sir Thomas wyatt went to Italy as King Henry’s diplomat, brought sonnet form to England
  • -14 Lines, iamic pentameter (2nd syllable stressed)(ten syllables)
  • -Italian sonnet: abba abba; octave; volta; Petrarch, unrequited love, first 8 lines (octave), last six (sestet)
  • -English Sonnet: abab / cdcd / efef/ gg; quatrains, couplet, problem presented, then further developed; Shakespear
  • Quatrain/octave/sestet/couplet –
  • Volta – turning point, reverse or propels into conclusion
  • Spenserian stanza3 Quatrains + couplet, abab / bcbc / cdcd / ee; interlocking rhyme scheme
  • Puritan –
  • Analogy –
  • Symbol A person, place or object which has a meaning in itself but suggests other meanings as well. Things, characters and actions can be symbols. Anything that suggests a meaning beyond the obvious.
  • Cavalier people loyal to the king (King Charles I), features conversational style, elaborate conceits, meditative tone, classicism, regular poetic form, carpe diem
  • Emblematic poem poems; physical symbol; how they look; can be abstract and concrete together
  • Tone The author’s attitude, stated or implied, toward a subject. Some possible attitudes are pessimism, optimism, earnestness, seriousness, bitterness, humorous, and joyful. An author’s tone can be revealed through choice of words and details.
  • Metaphysical“beyond physical”, explore ideas, religious issues, spirituality and philosophy
  • Imagery –
  • Conceit elaborate extended metaphors; compared the beauty of a woman to the beauty of a natural object; comparisons between dissimilar objects or ideas
  • Allusion When a writer or speaker refers to something from history or literature and expects her audience to understand to what she is referring, she is alluding or making an allusion.
  • Epic poem (conventions) –
  • Paradox an assertion seemingly opposed to common sense, but that may yet have some truth in it.
  • Carpe diem“seize the day”
  • blank verse unrhymed iambic pentameter
  • oxymoron – apparent paradox achieved by the juxtaposition of words which seem to contradict one another.
  • apostrophe a sudden turn from the general audience to address a specific group or person or personified abstraction absent or present.
  • lyric poetry –
  • ode a lyrical poem written to honor a person, thing, or quality. The language of an ode is dignified, serious, sincere, and imaginative. The oldest odes date to classical Greece. (“A Song for St. Cecilia’s Day” is an example of an irregular ode)
  • verisimilitude with the meaning ˝of being true or real˝ is a likeness or resemblance of the truth, reality or a fact’s probability. It comes from Latin verum meaning truth and similis meaning similar.
  • satire writing that exposes to ridicule the vices or follies of people or societies through devices such as hyperbole, understatement, and irony
  • satirical devices:
  • mockery – making fun of something
  • sarcasm – harsh, personally directed comment; using praise to mock someone; usually aims to hurt
  • overstatement – say more than is meant; exaggeration
  • understatement – saying less than is meant
  • parody – imitation of a specific, known person, literary work, movie, or event; often involves mocking
  • irony -say one thing, yet meaning another
  • bathos – going from the serious to the ridiculous quickly
  • mock-heroic -imitation, exaggeration, and distortion of literary epic style
  • mock epic –
  • heroic couplet –
  • diction –
  • syntax –
  • style –
  • elegy –
  • dialect –
  • parodyimitation of a specific, known person, literary work, movie, or event; often involves mocking
  • symbolism –
  • apostrophe –
  • alliteration –
  • assonance –
  • consonance –
  • internal rhyme –
  • hudibrastic rhyme –
  • synecdoche –
  • metaphor –
  • simile –
  • personification –
  • enjambment –
  • paradox –
  • gothic novel –
  • novel of manners-
  • neoclassicism –
  • romanticism –
  • Vocabulary

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2 thoughts on “LIT

  1. Hey just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The words in your post seem to be running off the screen in Safari. I’m not sure if this is a format issue or something to do with browser compatibility but I thought I’d post to let you know. The design and style look great though! Hope you get the issue fixed soon. Cheers

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